اصل عليت

قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 
1500تومان

سال هفدهم، شماره اول، پياپي 65، پاييز 1398

عبدالرسول عبوديت / استاد گروه فلسفه مؤسسه آموزشي و پژوهشي امام خميني ره
دريافت: 27/11/97                  پذيرش: 19/05/98
چکيده
قضيه «هر ممكن بالذاتي نيازمند علت است» را بايد تعبير دقيق اصل عليت به‌‌شمار آورد؛ زيرا بنا بر اصالت ماهيت، امكان ذاتي مناط نياز ماهيت به علت است و بنا بر اصالت وجود، نشانه احتياج وجود آن به علت است. اين اصل در خصوص صفات اشيا با تعبير «العرضي يعلل» بيان مي‌شود در برابرِ «الذاتي لا يعلّل» كه به بي‌نيازي صفات ذاتي شيء از علت اشاره دارد. اصل عليت خود بيان حالت خاصي از اصل امتناع ترجح بلامرجح است و به آن فرو کاسته مي‌شود؛ لذا از جهت بداهت و عدم بداهت و اثبات‌پذيري و اثبات‌ناپذيري تابع آن است، و همانند اصل مزبور بديهيِ اثبات‌ناپذير است. از اصل امتناع ترجح بلامرجح اصل ديگري منشعب مي‌شود: اصل امتناع ترجيح بلامرجح كه بيان اصل امتناع ترجح بلامرجح در خصوص فاعل مختار و افعال اختياري اوست و مانند آن بديهيِ اثبات‌ناپذير است.
كليدواژه‌ها: اصل عليت، العرضي يعلل، الذاتي لايعلل، ترجح بلامرجح‌، ترجيح بلامرجح.
 


The Causality Principle

Abdul-Rasul Ududiyyat / Professor in Department of Philosophy IKI

Received: 2019/02/16 - Accepted: 2019/08/10

ABSTRACT

The proposition “Any essentially possible being requires a cause” must be considered as the precise wording of the causality principle. This is because according to principality of quiddity, the essential possibility is the criterion for quiddity’s need of a cause, and according to the principality of existence, it is the sign for the of need of its existence to a cause. As for the attributes of the things, this principle is stated as “the accidental is caused”. This is in contrast to “the essential is not caused” which refers to the fact that the thing’s essential attributes do not require a cause. The causality principle is itself a certain statement of the special mode of the principle of “impossibility of preponderance without a preponderant” and is reduced to it. Thus, as far as self-evidence and non-self-evidence as well as provability and non-provability are concerned, it follows that principle; and as that principle is non-provable evident, so is the causality principle. From the principle of “impossibility of preponderance without a preponderant”, another principle is derived as follows: the principle of “impossibility of giving preponderance without a preponderant” which is the statement of the principle “impossibility of preponderance without a preponderant” for the free-willed agent and his volitional actions, and is non-provable evident just like it.

KEY WORDS: causality principle, the accidental is caused, the essential is not caused, “preponderance without a preponderant”, “giving preponderance without a preponderant”.