An Analysis and Evaluation of the Law of Higher Possibility

Ahmad Heydar-poor / Assistant Professor in IKI                                   aheydar6013@gmail.com

Qolam-Reza Fayyazi / Professor in IKI

Received: 2017/12/27 - Accepted: 2018/08/10


The main purpose of the present article is investigating the reasons and the content of the ‘law of higher possibility’ in peripatetic philosophy and transcendental theosophy. Accordingly, it will become clear that in addition to non-integrity of the reasons for that law, its content is not acceptable without aid from personal unity of existence, because the well-known reasons of that law are all based on impossibility of plural emanation from the Most High Necessary existent as well as the sufficiency of the essential possibility of the possibilities for being emanated from the Most High Necessary existent. This is while, firstly, these two foundations are inconsistent, and, secondly, according to Mulla Sadra’s  final opinion and that of other scholars, the plural emanation from the Most High Necessary existent is possible. The content of that law, however, involves infinite regression; and the philosophical rules and bases were unable, before the emergence of Mulla Sadra’s philosophy, to resolve that issue. Besides, Mulla Sadra was forced to resort to the ‘personal unity of existence’ to resolve it. Another way prepared by the transcendental theosophy to prove it is arguing for that law through the relationship between the effect and the creating cause. Much research, ample documents, stating the logical form of the arguments, and the critical look are among the features of this article.

KEY WORDS: the law "al-waahid", the law of higher possibility, peripatetic philosophy, transcendental theosophy, personal unity of existence, the law of ‘the soul, while unique, contains all faculties’.

Human’s Creation from the Fall of his Body to the Ascend of his Soul in Mulla Sadra’s Thought

Muhsen Fakuri / PhD Student of Philosophy in Islamic Azad University Najaf Abad mohsen.f.580@gmail.com

Muhsen Fahim / Assistant Professor of Islamic Philosophy and Theology in Azad University Najaf Abad        Fahimmohsen54@gmail.com

Mujtaba Ja’fari / Assistant Professor of Comparative Philosophy in Islamic Azad University Khomeini Shahr


Received: 2018/05/03 - Accepted: 2018/10/03


A rereading of the mysteries hidden in Adam’s Fall and the musts related to his ascend not only prepares the ground for his soul’s perfection, but also is – in itself – a high step in the way of the soul’s perfection. Mulla Sadra considers the Quranic verse about Adam’s divine vicegerency as related to his soul and stating its nature and the quality of its creation, drawing a close relation between Adam’s Fall and the soul’s ascend, considering Adam’s Fall as the ground for his ascend. Accordingly, this study clarifies that in Mulla Sadra’s thought, the status of Adam’s Fall is the lowest order in the existential orders of the soul, which shows the ultimate fall from his original nature. Adam’s Fall in Mulla Sadra’s thought shows one of the existential orders of the soul with a close relationship with the body and prepares the ground for the existential perfection of the soul. Thus, not only is the Fall not a deficiency for the man, it prepares the ground for his existential perfection, which was not possible without that fall. He believes that the address in the Fall is a genetic one because the fall from the paradise into the earth was not volitional for Adam so that he may be obliged to do it.


KEY WORDS: Adam’s Fall, the soul’s ascend, the soul’s perfection, physical emergence and spiritual survival, Mulla Sadra.


The Universal Consciousness in Transcendental Theosophy and its Role in Interaction with Environment

Korosh Heydari / PhD Student of Philosophy in Islamic Azad University Central Unit of Tehran


Muhammad Kazem Reza-zada Judi / Assistant Professor in Azad University Central Unit of Tehran


Received: 2017/03/16 - Accepted: 2018/08/31


By establishing the transcendental theosophy on ontological bases such as existentialism, gradation of existence and simplicity of existence, and by getting inspired from the religious culture, Mulla Sadra attempted to prove the theory of universal consciousness. In some of his works, Mulla Sadra has considered science concomitant with abstractness, regarding material beings as lacking consciousness, but in most of his works, he has accepted the [theory of] universal consciousness, based on which, just as the existence is a unique reality running in all beings with differing orders, its true attributes (knowledge, power, will and life) is running in all beings. Thus all beings, even inanimate objects, are alive, intelligent, praising God and acknowledging God’s existence as their creator. Apparently, the first theory is related to the simple knowledge and the second theory is related to composite knowledge. Accordingly, the present study clarifies that the theory of universal consciousness, as an epistemological achievement of various achievements of transcendental theosophy – put forward in religious culture and argued for in the context of transcendental theosophy – not only is influential in philosophical and ontological issues, but also shows some sort of ontology quite different from other sorts of it. This theory delineates Mulla Sadra’s principles of environmental ethics in interaction with environment, the most important of which are as follows: (1) the principle of intelligent interaction with environment, (2) the principle of witness interaction with environment, (3) the principle of responsible interaction with environment, and (4) the principle of sacred interaction with environment.

KEY WORDS: universal consciousness, transcendental theosophy, environment, environmental ethics.


Theoretical and Observational Concepts;
Realism or Non-Realism

Muhammad Hussein-Zade Yazdi / Professor in Department of Philosophy IKI mohammad_h@qabas.net

Received: 2018/05/15 - Accepted: 2018/09/29


Among the most basic discussions in epistemology are those related to ideas and concepts. In the present writing, we are trying to find out the features of theoretical concepts or terms as well as observational concepts. We are to find out whether the theoretical concepts are true concepts in principle or untrue ones like fairy tales and monsters or conventional concepts. In other words, must we choose realism or unrealism in the realm of theoretical concepts? What about the realm of observational concepts? And finally, what is the status of such concepts in the classification system of concepts and ideas? Undoubtedly, this discussion is among the most important and most basic epistemological discussions in the realm of concepts and ideas, through which the scientific propositions, laws and theories are organized. In the present study, we explore such a difficulty and pursue the related solution.


KEY WORDS: theoretical concepts, instrumentalism, observational concepts, fabricated concepts, realism, nominal definition, the prime intelligible.

Examining and Critique of Kant's Solution to the Conflict of Causal Necessity and Free Will

Muhammad Husseinzadeh \ Assiatant Professor in Iranian Institute of Philosophy Phsadra@gmail.com

Received: 2018/04/13 - Accepted: 2018/11/11


Kant is one of the philosophers that believe in the incompatibility between causal determination and free will. He tries to provide an approach in which one can be convinced of both causal necessity and free will. For this purpose, he explains each of causal necessity and free will in a special domain apart from the other domain, so that these two incompatible components are separated and not confronted. In this paper, Kant's viewpoint and his solution to the conflict between causal necessity and free will are explained. In examining Kant's view, it was concluded that Kant's solution has five rejections, and assuming that the necessity and free will are incompatible, Kant's solution is not an appropriate way to believe in free will.


Keywords: Kant; Free Will; Causal Necessity; Incompatibility; Noumenon; Phenomenon.

Quantum Logic: Logic of False True

Muhsen Anbiyaie / PhD in Philosophy of Religion IKI                                          anbiaei@yahoo.com

Received: 2018/01/15 - Accepted: 2018/05/31


Quantum mechanics replaced the traditional mechanics in the early twentieth century. To study Schrodinger’s wave equation, whose position in this new mechanics is like the status of Newton’s movement laws in traditional mechanics, numerous philosophical statements have been offered, one of which is ‘quantum logic’. The founders of quantum logic claim that on the basis of their observations in quantum level, the traditional logic, which previously served as the measurement for right and wrong arguments, lacks the proper efficiency and must be replaced by one of the expressions of quantum logic. In the present article, while shortly introducing quantum mechanics and quantum logic, we have avoided entering the formal discussions of quantum logic and used analytical method to investigate the possibility of replacing the traditional logic with quantum logic. According to this study, it was clarified that one must regard quantum logic just as a mathematical formulization, not an alternative logic, because firstly it is dependent on a certain statement of Schrodinger’s equation, and secondly, one must use traditional logic to falsify it. Applying this logic to traditional and quantum logic would result in truth and falsehood of both logics and not falsehood of traditional logic and truth of alternative logic.


KEY WORDS: quantum logic, Aristotle’s logic, traditional (classic) logic, quantum mechanics, quantum theory, quantum statement, wave function.

Examination of phenomenology as an epistemological
foundation of existentialism

Mahmoud Namazi / Assistant Professor in IKI                                                       namazi@qabas.net

Received: 2017/12/08 - Accepted: 2018/06/22


In this paper the epistemic sources of existential philosophies are inspected. To this end, first, we explain briefly the antecedent views regarding the value of human knowledge from ancient Greece to contemporary philosophy and philosophy of the 20th century. During the explanation of this historical survey, the idea of phenomenology/internality as one of the epistemic sources of existential philosophies is observed. In this section, the way in that this reflection transfers from Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728 – 1777) and Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804) in modern history, to Jean-Paul Charles Aymar Sartre (1905 – 1980) and Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844 – 1900) and others in contemporary century and existential philosophy is examined. Then the role of mediocrity of this line of thought, i.e., Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 – 1860) as an intermediary student of Kant and direct teacher of Nietzsche is highlighted. Then the position of phenomenology among its homogeneous fields, such as, epistemology, ethics and logic is descripted and distinguished. In this section it will be observed that phenomenology could not be a tendency opposing its homogeneous fields, for phenomenology means to know phenomena, and therefore in this case it is part of knowledge, not opposite to it. Then lexical and terminological concepts, definition, courses and the subject of phenomenology are investigated. In this part we will deduce that it is impossible to give a firm, fixed and definite definition for phenomenology. At the end the theory of phenomenology as a basis of epistemology of existentialism is examined.


Key words: existentialism, phenomenology, internality.

The new science of the philosophy of rights

Mohammad Hossein Talebi / Associate professor of the philosophy of law in Hawze wa Daneshgah Research Institute                                                                                                                                     mhtalebi@rihu.ac.ir

Received: 2018/02/10 - Accepted: 2018/07/16


The science of the philosophy of rights is a new science which speaks about a factual thing by the name of right (the opposite of duty) and its related issues by rational arguments. Some of the most significant issues of the philosophy of rights science as an interdisciplinary science are: profound rational meditations about conceptual content of the right and its existential structure, types of rights and rights holders, and an acute look analyzing the source of all kinds of rights as well. In this writing, the science of the philosophy of rights as a new and independent science as well as its eight fundamental issues will be explained. In the first step, the science of the philosophy of rights will be introduced, and then its subject will be explored. In the next stage, the purpose of this science will be explained. The extent of the philosophy of rights and its issues will be explicated in the fourth step. The benefit of this science, its position and the relation of this new science with other branches of knowledge as well as the its research method will be mentioned in the next stages. The last part of this writing includes some points about the main author of this science.


Keywords: the right, duty, philosophy of rights, the meaning of right, types of right, right holders, source of rights, eight fundamental issues of the philosophy of rights.


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