Priority of Soul over Body from the Viewpoints of Ibn Sina, Suhrawardi, and Mulla Sadra

Mohammad Ali Sharifi / MA in Philosophy, IKI                                m.sharifi115@mailfa.com

Mohammad Fanaei Eshkevari / Professor of the Department of Philosophy, IKI

Received: 2017/06/01 - Accepted: 2018/01/15                                            fanaei.ir@gmail.com



Ibn Sina, Suhravardi and Mulla Sadra have different explanations of human soul and its mode of being. In their first explanation we may see that they defend temporality of soul along with the emergence of body or with the same emergence of the body. However in another explanation they explicitly or implicitly defend the existence of the soul prior to body so that one can understand the eternity of the soul. If one does not see all their words in this regard one may accuse them of self-contradicting. But a comprehensive study of their teaching leads us to a deeper understanding of the soul and its mode of being in the material world. On this understanding we recognize three realms of rational, imaginal and material world for soul and will realize that the priority of soul over body relates to the rational and imaginal world and its material being belongs to the material world.

Key Words: Soul, body, priority, Ibn Sina, Suhravardi, Mulla Sadra.

The Intellectual Meta-Immateriality Status of Soul from the Viewpoint of Mulla Sadra, Imam Khomeini and Allameh Hasan-zadeh Amoli

Mohsen Movahhedi Asl / Ph.D. Student of the Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Qom Uni movahedi114@yahoo.com

Ahmad Abedi / Associate Professor of Philosophy Department, Qom Uni.

Received: 2017/09/23 - Accepted: 2018/03/17



One of the most significant issues of the knowledge of human soul is the status of the meta-immateriality of soul. This paper studies this issue based on the ontological foundations of Mulla Sadra, the founder of the Transcendent Philosophy. Then, it investigates its canonical evidence from the viewpoint of Imam Khomeini, the prominent philosopher, mystic and the follower of Sadra's School. Next, it studies its rational arguments from the viewpoint of Allameh Hasan-zadeh Amoli. This theory is the soul's lack of quiddity. Quiddity represents the confinement, the deficiency of an object and its weakness and defect, while soul does not have a certain boundary. Hence, soul does not have a logical definition. Though, it has a limit "Nafad" in comparison with its superior type.

This theory is so noble that, it interconnects all the basics of Sadra's philosophy like the series of chain, including the essentiality of existence, the gradation of existence, constant substantial motion, and the union of subject and object. We should know that, it is not possible to recognize soul in this status, without understanding these bases. Soul in this status gets some features like, true shadowy unity, Divine Vicegerency, and the status of interconnection between all other than God with God the Exalted.

Key Words: Lack of quiddity, Meta-immateriality, soul, Substantial motion, Divine Vicegerency, true shadowy unity.

Philosophical Foundations and Principles of the Divine Speech and Book in Mulla Sadra's New Ontology

Seyyed Mohammad Hosein Mirdamadi / Ph.D. Student of the Islamic Philosophy, Isfahan Uni


Seyyed Mahdi Imami Jom'eh / Associate Professor of the Islamic Philosophy and Theology Department, Isfahan Uni                m.amami lta.ui.ac.ir

Received: 2017/01/07 - Accepted: 2017/10/10



One of the theological issues is the Speech and Speaking of Allah. This issue has been discussed in Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy under the topic of the Speech and the Book. He studied this issue with his abstractive intellect from an ontological perspective with the help of the Qur'anic verses and traditions from the infallibles. Mulla Sadra has an epistemological view on the existence, and basically, he does not consider a separation between existence and Allah's guidance. The world with its levels is represented as meaningful words in his view, which is the Speech in one side, and the Book from the other side. That is not poetry, nor imagination, nor mere gnostic intuition. Here lies Mulla Sadra's skill who philosophically explains this era of existence from an ontological perspective, which some rules can be set for that. This paper seeks to extract and explain these rules.

Key Words: the Speech, the Book, Levels of existence, Text of existence, Mulla Sadra.

A Semantic Analysis of "By-accident Subsistence" and "By-consequence Subsistence" in the Domain of Divine Attributes from Sadr-al-mut'allihin's Viewpoint

Mohammad Hossein Vafa'eyan / Ph.D. Student of the Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Tehran Uni               mh_vafaiyan@yahoo.com

Ghasemali Kouchenani / Associate Professor of the Islamic Philosophy and theology Department, Tehran Uni             kochnani@ut.ac.ir

Received: 2017/02/04 - Accepted: 2017/08/23



The establishment of the Divine attributes of Almighty Lord is considered as the subsistence of being for quiddity. This affirmation is sometimes considered as a "by-accident subsistence" and sometimes as a "by-consequence subsistence". "By-accident subsistence" is a non-factual and metaphorical subsistence from the viewpoint of the logicians and Mulla Sadra, while "by-consequence subsistence" schematically proves a predicate for a subject. A belief in these two types of affirmation for the Divine attributes and quiddity initially seems impossible and paradoxical. This paper is a semantic analysis of "by-accident subsistence" and "by-consequence subsistence" from the viewpoint of Mulla Sadra and comparing the two to inquire about the aforementioned paradox. Using a logical-analytical method and concentrating on Sadra's works, this paper explains two possibilities in the meaning of "by-consequence subsistence" considering two different perspectives in terms of the quiddities and Divine attributes, none of which is incompatible with "by-accident subsistence".

Key Words: Subsistence of quiddity for existence, Divine attributes, by-consequence subsistence, by-accident subsistence, Sadr-al-mut'allihin.

Explaining the Designated and the Criterion of Truth of Primary Premises;
a Comparative Study of the Viewpoint of Ayatollah Misbah and that of the Ancient Thinkers;

Mahdi Ahmad Khan Beigi / Ph.D. In Comparative Philosophy, IKI         12beigy@gmail.com

Received: 2017/05/17 - Accepted: 2018/02/06



Primary Premises, as a basis of human knowledge, has always been a matter of interest for epistemologists. The central point in such propositions is their criterion of truth. The "cross reference of primary premises to knowledge by presence" is a special theory in this respect. Ayatollah Misbah, the founder of this theory, states that we should look for the criterion of truth of primary premises in an immediate command of their designator, designated and designation. In contrast, some scholars believe that, if the subject in a primary premise has an instance in its compatible reality, then, the primary premises will also represent that instance in the real world. Accordingly, we cannot cross reference the designated to knowledge by presence, because the outside world can never be immediately present before us. But by analyzing primary premises, we realize that they do not designate, in any way, their actualized instances in the real world, or any non-conditional reality, which exists among the instances. In the midst of such ambiguity, Ayatollah Misbah invites us to a new theory. He believes that, we should not look for the designated of primary premises in the concepts' representation of the real world, rather we should look for them in their hypothetical representation of the real world.

Key Words: Primary Premises, designator, designated, criterion of truth, hypothetical representation.

Bases of the Apprehension of Divine Essence from the Viewpoint of Allameh Tabataba'i

Maryam Barotti, Ph.D. Student of Hikmat al-muta'aliya, Tarbiat Modares Uni


Reza Akbarian / Professor of Philosophy, Tarbiat Modares Uni      dr.r.akbarian@gmail.com

Qasem Kakai / Professor of Philosophy, Shiraz Uni                                 ghkakaie@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/09/08 - Accepted: 2017/06/12



Allameh Tabataba'i, in his Principles of the Philosophy and Methodology of Realism, considers the reality as the apprehension of the Divine essence; but he has represented a various conception from reality and the Divine essence (restricted to the attributes or necessities etc.). This paper, seeks to analyze the selected conception of the Divine essence from the viewpoint of Allameh Tabataba'i. This conception is the same reality that is beyond any absoluteness and determination; but considering the Divine essence as a conditioned reality, absolute reality versus absolute and conditioned reality, is not compatible with the selected conception of the Divine essence of Allameh Tabataba'i. Although, these conception are compatible with each other based on different conception.  Finally, by analyzing the quality of formation of absolute reality in mind, the abstract method of Allameh will be subordinated to the negative concept and negation of concept.

Key Words: reality, conception, Divine essence, negation of concept, negative concept, Allameh Tabataba'i. 

The Origin of the Genetic Rights

Seyed Mahmood Nabavian / Associate Professor of Philosophy Department, IKI


Mahdi Meshki / Instructor of Philosophy Department, IKI               meshki.qom@gmail.com

Received: 2017/09/14 - Accepted: 2018/04/04



The meaning of right, the whatness of right, the correlation of right and duty, types of rights, and the origin of right are among the most important theoretical issues in the philosophy of right. The issue of the origin of the genetic rights (which are also called as the innate, essential and natural rights) is among the most important issues about right. Today, there are many claims about human rights and his essential rights, such as the right to life and the right to freedom. The fate of various political issues in the field of human rights is connected to the origin of the so-called essential human rights. Assuming the intrinsic nature of some rights, the origin of such rights requires serious investigation. Does the human being possess some rights based on humanity? Is human dignity the origin of such rights? This article tries to establish that the origin of essential or genetic human rights is restricted to the genetic sovereignty of Allah Almighty. 

Key Words: right, innate, essential, natural rights, origin and genetic right.

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