A Study on Copulative Existence as Having No Essence, in

Allama Tabataba'i’s Thought

Muhammad Ali Isma’ili (Level Four Student in al-Mustafa International University & PhD Student of Theology in Specialized Center of Theology)                 mali.esm91@yhaoo.com



The term “copulative existence” was used in philosophers’ statements before Mulla Sadra in two cases: (a) copulative existence in propositions; (b) existence in-itself for something else. Mulla Sadra would regard, in the light of the bases of transcendental theosophy, possible existence the same as copulation and relation to Necessary Being, freeing it from any independence, calling it “copulative existence”. The discussion on no essence of possible beings (copulative existence in transcendental theosophy) is a point of disagreement. Allama Tabataba'i would regard them of no essence, proving this by existence of a correlation between having essence and conceptual independence. This theory has different philosophical results some of which can be found in issues such as status of discussion on essence in philosophy, dividing possible being into entity and accident, interpretation of relative categories and interpretation of distance. In the present article, we have investigated the reasons and results of this view in a descriptive-analytical way.

KEY WORDS: copulative existence, essence, conceptual independence, Allama Tabataba'i.            

Identifying Angles with Incorporeal Beings in the Islamic Philosophy

Ali Reza Kohansal (Assistant Professor in Department of Philosophy and Islamic Theosophy/ Mashhad Ferdowsi University)                                                    kohansal-a@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir

Amir Rastin (PhD Student of Transcendental Theosophy/ Mashhad Ferdowsi University)




In Muslim philosophers’ view, studying incorporeal beings and studying angels have always been correlatives; and incorporeal beings have always been identified with angels. On the one hand, considering numerous evidences for abstraction of angels, philosopher have held that angels were incorporeal beings; on the other hand, in view of their various ontological models, while explaining the status of incorporeal beings in this system, they have identified angels with these very incorporeal beings. In the present article, firstly we have defined incorporeal being, stated their various types and their features, and have presented a picture of knowing abstractions in Islamic philosophy. We, then, have mentioned texts denoting identity of angels with incorporeal beings by great Muslim philosophers to confirm the principle of this identity. The final judgment suggests that, altogether, in view of common features of angels and incorporeal beings, such an identity is confirmed; and conformity of intellect and religious law is proved again. However, in identifying individual angels with certain instances of incorporeal beings, one must take more care.

KEY WORDS: angels, incorporeal, identifying angels with incorporeal beings, Islamic philosophy, common features.

Self-Knowledge as a Basis for Knowing God in the Thought System of

Ibn Arabi and Mulla Sadra

Shamsullah Seraj (Assistant Professor in Ilam University)               sh.safarlaki@mail.ilam.ac.ir

Somayya Monfared (PhD Student of Islamic Philosophy and Theology/ Ilam University)



Self-knowledge is among the most important discussions emphasized by philosophers and mystics. It has been much more important because of its relation to knowing the Lord. To understand and present a precise interpretation of the way one should go from knowing one’s soul to knowing one’s God, Muslim thinkers and mystics have made great efforts. Muhyi-ddin Arabi and Mulla Sadra, with two philosophical and mystic approaches, have regarded self-knowledge as the best way to achieve the reality of existence and knowing God. In the present article, we have tried – through a brief look at theoretical bases and analysis of epistemological views of these two philosophers – to investigate the reason and the method of going from knowing one’s self to knowing God in their views in order to find points of agreement and disagreement between those views and the relationship between them in regard with this specific subject. In spite of the fact that Mulla Sadra accepts Ibn Arabi’s model for going from knowing one’s self to knowing God, he seeks to present proofs for mystical basis of Muhyuddin, rereading them on the basis of his own philosophical principles.

KEY WORDS: unity of existence, self-knowledge, perfect man, knowing God, Ibn Arabi, Mulla Sadra.        

An Inquiry into the Necessity of the Realization of Signified for the Signifier

Considering the Hierarchy of Signification

Mahdi Ahmad Khan Beygi (PhD Student of Comparative Philosophy/ Imam Khomeini Educational end Research Institute)

Mojtaba Mesbah  (Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy/ Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute) m-mesbah@qabas.net



Considering the correlation between the “signifier” and the “signified”, if the “signifier” is realized truly, the “signified” would necessarily be realized. In spite of realization of the “tale” in all mental forms, however, the “signified” is realized just in return for true affirmations in real world. The question is “how can one consider the conceptions and propositions inside the mind – except the true affirmations – as having a “signification” while the signified is not realized in their proper fact-itself? Some thinkers adduce the inherent nature of signification to hold that real signification is not restricted to true affirmations; rather, it is realized in all types of conceptions and propositions both inherently and de facto. Master Mesbah, while accepting the principle governing the two correlatives, believes in orders of the “signification” and various meanings for it, and restricts realization of real signification to the last order of the signification, i.e. the “full signification”. Thus, he does not regard it necessary to pursue the “signified” in one of the worlds of fact-itself for realization of the “signification” in other orders. In the present article, we have pursued commitment to true realization of the signified in each order of the signification merely based on the theory of situational signification, investigating and explaining the right opinion.

KEY WORDS: signification, situational signification, signifier, signified, orders of signification, correlatives.              

A Review and Investigation of George Edward Moore’s View on

Common Sense

Mustafa Azizi Alawije (Assistant Professor in al-Mustafa International University) M.azizi56@yahoo.com

Sayyid Ihsan Rafi’ee Alawi (PhD Student of Public Law/ Allama Tabatabaee University)




The philosophy of common sense, founded firstly by Thomas Reid and then by Edward Moore, aimed at combating skepticism and idealism and had a considerable effect on epistemology afterwards. The important points regarding common Sense are as follows: (a) conceptual analysis of “common sense” and stating its features; (b) the origin and source of propositions of “common sense”; (c) the criterion for truth and falsity and the validity of “common sense”. In the present article, these three issues have been investigated from George Moore’s view, and then, his view on “common sense” have been criticized and reviewed, with its serious challenges being stated. Finally, we have compared, through a comparative approach, the theory of “common sense” with the discussion on “axioms”.

KEY WORDS: Common Sense, George Edward Moore, sensory data, axiom, identifying the truth.   

Human Innate Features and their Role in Human Sciences:

A Comparative Study of Ayatollah Mesbah and Abraham Maslow

Isma’il Nejati (MA of Philosophy/ Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute)


Ali Mesbah (Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy/ Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute)                              a-mesbah@qabas.net



In the anthropology sphere, two major approaches are pursued: “philosophical anthropology” and “empirical anthropology”. The present study aims at comparing the ideas of two contemporary anthropologists as the representatives of these two approaches in regard with human’s innate features, investigating the effects of their basic commonalities and differences. Accordingly, the views of Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Mesbah, among Muslims philosophers, based on Islamic sources and transcendental theosophy, and the views of Abraham Harold Maslow, among humanist psychologists, based on romantic philosophy, existentialism and empiricism were considered. In the result section, the present research has found limited and apparent commonalities as well as many basic differences between these two thinkers regarding the abovementioned issues, in a way that the differences has caused them to think differently in describing humane phenomena, explaining their relations, specifying the subjects and issues of research, and choosing tools and sources of recognition. Besides, they have different judgments in ordering, specifying behavioral norms, values, policies, and advising humane behaviors and issues.

KEY WORDS: Ayatollah Mesbah, Abraham Maslow, psychology, philosophical psychology, human sciences, anthropology, Islam, innate features, natural features.           

 The Goal of Islamic Human Sciences in Allama Tabataba'i’s View

Sayyid Ruhullah Mir-Nasiri (MA of Philosophy/ Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute) mirnasiri2031@gmail.com

Abul-Fazl Sajedi (Professor in Department of Theology/ Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute) sajedi@qabas.net



The goals chosen by researchers for doing research in human sciences have considerable role in the way the issues are selected, compiled and specified in human sciences. The goal of a research is dependent somewhat on the nature of the subject and somewhat on the motivations and values accepted by the researcher. The different views of Islamic researchers on the nature of the subject as well as adoption of Islamic values accepted by them make Islamic human sciences manifest somehow different from existing human sciences. Allama Tabataba'i, as one of the prominent Islamic thinkers, has theorized in some issues pertaining to human sciences. Considering his approach and scrutiny in evidences existing in his “theory of relative things” guide us into the idea that human sciences, in his view, can be conformed with “practical sciences”; and consequently, the final goal of human sciences is presenting musts and must nots for realization of Islamic ideal system – a system wherein the conditions are ready for perfection of the individual and society in a favorite form and according to value teachings of Islam. In Allama’s view, thus, in addition to explanation and interpretation, criticism and presenting desirable norms fall under the category of goals of human sciences in order to delineate the ideal system.

KEY WORDS: goals of human sciences, practical sciences, relative things, Allama Tabataba'i

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