Ma‘rifat-i Falsafi, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Summer 2012), pp. 11-40
Irfani Intuition; the Criterion for the Reality of Existence in
Ibn Sina’s “Proof of the Righteous”

Ahmad Beheshti 1
Mahmud-Reza Mirzajani 2

Theist philosophers have always tried to come up with an argument for the existence of God without depending on philosophical premises, or requiring reference to creatures. For the first time, Ibn Sina introduced a quasi-demonstrative argument, reasoning from the mode of existence for the existence of God as the necessary existence, and called it “Proof of the Righteous”. Mulla Sadra criticized it for depending on the concept of existence, and called it a “pseudo-righteous” one.
The authors of this article review some of the philosophers’ support for Ibn Sina, and then argue, from intuitive and near-existential arguments, that Ibn Sina kills two birds with one stone; i.e. suggests a rational argument, and intuitively gets into the objective reality of existence.

Keywords: Proof of the Righteous, Ibn Sina, Mulla Sadra, Concept of Existence, Reality of Existence, Intuitively Existential Argument.



Ma‘rifat-i Falsafi, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Summer 2012), pp. 41-70
Perfection and Dynamism of Eschatological Man in Mulla Sadra’s Prospect

Sayyed Mahdi Imami Jom’eh3Mansura-al-sadat Vedad4

Since eschatological worlds are philosophically free from any passive matter and potential, movement and change in the sense of turning from potentiality into actuality is meaningless in those worlds. This applies also to perfection since it accompanies movement too. However, Mulla Sadra speaks about eschatological transformations and perfections in certain statements. The present article seeks to find what Mulla Sadra means by such statements. Responding this question clarifies the general prospect of Mulla Sadra to the eschatological world and its special system. So this article studies his statements in this regard and clarifies the point that in his opinion, perfection and change do not necessarily involve movement. He attaches to them a meaning more general than movement. Finally, according to these foundations, the possibility of instant perfection and change, perfection in terms of knowledge, and their actual happening in the next world are made clear. Based on this perspective, we should consider the philosophy of human life as being linked to limitlessness. Even in the eschatological heaven, moving towards the Almighty God and the absolute infinity would happen at a higher speed than this world.

Keywords: human soul, movement, change, perfection, eschatological worlds, Mulla Sadra, transcendental philosophy


Ma‘rifat-i Falsafi, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Summer 2012), pp. 71-100
The Functions of Reason and its Roles in Religious Knowledge

Reza Berenjkar5

The role of reason in religious knowledge is one of the branches of the old discourse of reason and revelation having always been the focal point of religious thinkers. The history of theology can be analyzed and interpreted in the light of the role of reason in religious knowledge. Hence, the main difference between theological schools refers to the perspective of these schools on the above mentioned issue. The present article suggests that reason has at least five significant functions, i.e., theoretical, practical, instrumental, deductive, and defensive ones. The role of reason in religious knowledge can also be devided at least into eight functions i.e. standard, key, deduction, defense, instrument, complementation, independent interaction, and dependent interaction. Thus the functions and roles of reason are very much beyond what has been mentioned up to now.

Keywords: theoretical reason, practical reason, instrumental reason, deductive reason, defensive reason, religious knowledge, revelation, standard, key, deduction, defense, instrument, complementation, independent interaction, dependent interaction



Ma‘rifat-i Falsafi, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Summer 2012), pp. 101-126
The Possibility of Imaginal World (as Mulla Sadra defines it) in the Phenomenology of the Hermeneutics of Arts

Mahdi Nazemi Qarebagh6
Muhammad Javad Safian7

The world of imagination has undergone various developments in the Islamic philosophy from the time of Farabi to that of Mulla Sadra.
The auhors in this article suggest that by concentrating on the philosophy of Mulla Sadra, avoiding mystical perspectives, and resorting to phenomenological method, one can present an explanation about a stage of the world of imagination which is inter-subjective and delimited, without being involved in the validity or falsity of common philosophical arguments. They call it “world-imagination-content”. World-imagination-content is the imaginative aspect of the existential relation of the human being with existence, and the constituent of his imagination-content behaviors in different fields, including art. Taking world-imagination-content into account can pave the way for a better understanding of art in the philosophy of Heidegger, compensating its incapacity for understanding multiple artistic modes.

Keywords: imaginal world, world-imagination-content, phenomenology of art, Mulla Sadra, Heidegger


Ma‘rifat-i Falsafi, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Summer 2012), pp. 127-156
Scrutinizing Paulo Coelho’s Epistemological Foundations

Hamed Hoseinian8
Ahmad-Hosein Sharifi9

Nowadays the works of Paulo Coelho is rated among the newly arising mysticisms. These works are mainly novels. Thus revealing Paulo Coelho’s thought foundations is not so easy. However, understanding the principles of his thoughts for his numerous readers is of great importance. Getting aware of these principles itself is the best criticism of these false and imported mysticisms. The present article studies and criticizes the epistemological principles of his works. Paulo Coelho believes that cognition is neither possible nor necessary. He seeks to propagate relativism in his works. Having denied the possibility of knowing the world and its realities, he encourages his followers to embrace fideism, pluralism, and religious experience. His statements and arguments are faithfully quoted and criticized in the article.

Keywords: Paulo Coelho, epistemology, relativism, pluralism, fideism


Ma‘rifat-i Falsafi, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Summer 2012), pp. 157-194
A Theoretical Attempt at Discovering Islamic Normative Stance towards Entertainment

Naser Bahonar10
Sayed Hosein Sharafoddin11

One of the fundamental and primary needs of human being is the need for entertainment and filling in the leisure time in various creative ways. This need is usually met in various ways and according to the individual and social understandings and demands as well as environmental facilities, In the past, entertainment was mixed with work and activity in the regular process of life without considering special preparations towards managing it. It was mainly a concern of children and teenagers or the upper class of the society. However, it is changed nowadays to one of the public opportunities distinct from the usual process of official work and activity which seriously requires policy making, planning, making preparations, and allocating facilities. Considering the institutionalization of all mechanisms toward social needs, meeting this need has also been left to a body of social organizations and institutions ranging from national to international levels.
The question of the present article is: what is the position of Islam as a religion and as a social meta-institution in the Islamic society in Iran, towards this need and its requirements. What are the general features of normative outlines derived from Islamic shari’ah towards meeting this need? Accusing religions of disregarding, or even opposing, this type of needs, and the dislike or reluctance of most of believers and followers of religions to this kind of activities have made studying and taking necessary positions in this regard as one of the most serious and necessary needs in the field of religious investigations touching social demands.

Keywords: Islam, norm, normative theory, entertainment, leisure


Ma‘rifat-i Falsafi, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Summer 2012), pp. 195-228
The Nature of Media; with an Emphasis on Religious Media

Muhammad Fuladi 12

Taking an analytical approach, the present article examines the nature of media to determine whether it is a cultural means or a cultural package, and whether it is representative or non-representative of social facts. Adoption of each of these approaches is based on the type of one’s conception or attitude towards existence. Although in the modern world of complex communications, we are seriously exposed to the media, it does not mean that we are absolutely submissive to it. Media is not a mere cultural means or context. Rather, it has its own capacities, requirements, facilities and limitations. Therefore, knowing the nature of media, religion, religious teachings, and the possibility of propagating them by the media, one can benefit from the maximum capacity of the media towards spreading the messages of religion.

Keywords: media, religious media, nature of media

1 Professor, Azad University in Tehran. Received: 2011/10/2 Accepted: 2012/7/9

2 M.A. in Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Azad University in Fasa: hamedmirzajani@gmail.com

3 . Associate professor, department of theology, Isfahan University: m.amami@Itr.ui.ac.ir
Received: 2011/12/25 Accepted: 2012/7/9

4 . M.A in Islamic philosophy and theology , Isfahan University: m_svedad@yahoo.com

5 . Associate professor, Tehran University in Qom: berenjkar@ut.ac.ir
Received: 2012/2/12 Accepted: 2012/7/19

6 . Ph. D student, Isfahan University: s.m.nazemi.g@gmail.com

7 Assistant professor, Department of Philosophy, Isfahan University:
                         Received: 2012/1/15 Accepted: 2012/7/16

8 . Ph. D student of Philosophy of religion, Imam Khomeini I.E.R:      safri.shahed@gmail.com

9 Associate professor, Imam Khomeini I.E.R:                 sharifi1738@yahoo.com
Received: 2011/12/27 Accepted: 2012/8/2

10 . Assistant professor, Imam Sadiq University:              nbahonar@yahoo.com

11 . Assistant professor, Imam Khomeini I.E.R:             sharaf@qabas.net
Received: 2012/1/4 Accepted: 2012/8/6

12 . Assistant professor, Imam Khomeini i.E.R:              fooladi@qabas.net
Received: 2012/2/6 Accepted: 2012/7/31