Tabel of Contents

Editor¨s Foreword

Philosophy and Religion: A Panel Discussion

Phasal Gradation؛ The Study and Critique of Passing through Gradation to Connected and from Connected to disconnected Gradation

The Position of the Mother Proposition or the Impossibility of Contradiction in Human Knowledge


A Critique to the Translation of Asfar Araba¨a

A Critique to the Translation of Asfar Araba¨a

Abbas fathi

The Asfar Arba¨a is the name of the book written by Sadr al - Muta¨allihin؛ who is given the title "the cheaf of the divine philosophers.

This book has such dignity that many philosophers and great learned men have expressed their inability to perceive its content؛ therefore, its translation is not an easy job. This task depends on three issues: 1. Camplete familarity to Scientific Arabic language. 2. Complte familiarity to Islamic philosophy and its history, especialy complete familiarity to Sadraian philosophy and the ability to uncover its secrets and concepts. 3. A mystical taste and a special spiritual readiness. Otherwise, one should not enter such an arena.

This article studies and criticizes the transtation of Asfar Arba¨a by Mohammad Khajavi. This work could not convey the elegant beautiful meanings of Asfar, rather its perpelexing full - of - mistake sentences pushes the reader away from the original content of the book.

Keywords: Asfar Arba¨a, Mystical taste, getting delineated Arshi Critique, reasonable restriction, contradiction.


Seyed Mahamoud Nabavian

One of the biggest dangers that has seriously thretened human thought, and its existance causes destruction and decayance ot human thought and prevants it from reaching its high and lightful destiny is fallacy in reasoning, especialy with taking into consderation some people who learn different kinds of fallacy to attract human thouglt to their own inhumane goals and evidently with changing thoughts the individuals, actions and behaviors will be deviated under their effect.

Therefore, recognizing various kinds of fallacy is necessary and obligatory for baving a correct thought. For this, in every age, the committed thinkers have shouldered to unconer misleadings through accurately studying reasonings and study different fallacies through independat studies.

The Muslim logicians also have tried to talk about fallacy, its kinds and its ways in the art of [section related to] fallacy and other arts.

This artilce is an attempt to berifly review the discussions about fallacy, its kinds before Muslim thinkers and suggests that: fallacies are not limited to the 13 kinds, which are mentioned in the review. Rather, with over all and accurate reference to the books of logic, it would become evident that the Muslim logicians have elaborated on 310 kinds of fallacies.

Keyword: fallacy, refutation, quarrel, Reasoning, dialectics, sophism, gramatical inflection and punctuation, amphiboly, verbal fallacy, semantic fallacy, casual fallacy.

The Position of the Mother Proposition or the Impossibility of Contradiction in Human Knowledge

Askari Soleimani Amiri

From the viewpoint of Muslim logicians and philosophers the Principle of "impossibility of contradiction has a high position among parts of the knowledge system and forms the foundation of all logical and nonlogical knowledge in a way it secures a position similar to that of necessary being compared with possible beings. Regarding other knowlegdes being based upon this principle there are five theories: Some has declared all knowledges as results of the principle of impossibility of contradiction؛ some has known some priori principles and common sense principles as exceptions to the principle of impossibility of contradiction؛ some explained the knowleges as being based upon the principle of impossibility of contradiction for double certainty and negation of its oppossite or rejection of other knowledges؛ and yet some has said that the dependence upon this principle ia a kind of secoudary and a for need knowlege about knowledge.

Keywords: priori principles, self evidents, the principle of impossibility of contradiction, the very first priori, self identity, fundamentalism.

Phasal Gradation

The Study and Critique of Passing through Gradation to Connected and from Connected to Coexistant disconnected Gradation

Rahim Qorbani

The issue of gradation is one of the important issues in knowledge of existance in Islamic Philosophy which clarifies and explains many facts and objective phenomena.

Howevere, the disconnected (common) and even Connected gradation of Mulla Sadra (special gradation) is talked about merely as a theory or supposition؛ because it does not explainc any of objective issues, rather, they address some incomplete positions of the factual outside world.

This article intends to pave the way to understanding issues and objective phenomena through suggestion of the theory of "Phasal or Coexistant Gradation." The Theory of phasal or coexitatant gradation is the basic pillar for numerous issues of existantialism in philosophy. In this article some of them are studied and some are mentioned for more study of the respected philosophy investigators.

Keywords: Gradation, disconnected, connected, phasal, middle stages, coinsidant stages, phasal look.

Philosophy and Religion: A Panel Discussion

Attendants: Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Mesbah, Hoj. Ghulam-Rida Fayyazi

Debated issues in this panel discussion include those regarding the relation between religion and philosophy on the one hand, and between religious and philosophical knowledge on the other. The definitions of religion and philosophy are discussed؛ religious and philosophical knowledge are described؛ and their respective relations based on the preferred definitions are studied. The dialogue extends to the relation between religious and philosophical issus, and the possibility of contradiction between religion and philosophy and / or religious knowledge and philosophical one. A solution to possible oppositions is another topic that has come up in this panel discussion.

Keywords: Religion, Philosophy, Religious Knowledge, Philosophical Knowledge, Religious Studies.