The Species Plurality of the Souls and the Human’s Quiddity

@ Yaser Hussein-pour / PhD in Transcendental Theosophy IKI

Gholam Reza Fayyazi / Professor in Department of Philosophy IKI

Received: 2020/12/19 - Accepted: 2021/06/15


In this article, in addition to proclaiming a position regarding the typical unity or plurality of the human souls, we are seeking to find a proper resolution for the psychological riddle of the human’s quiddity. One of the issues in the philosophical psychology is the question regarding the typical unity or plurality of the human souls. The Muslim scholars have offered a variety of opinions in this regard and, in addition to presenting some arguments, they have used evidences from the Quran and hadith in establishing their idea. Some of the Islamic philosophers believe in the typical unity of the souls and some others believe in the species plurality of the souls. Among them, Mulla Sadra has presented a middle line in some of his books, believing in an initial unity in type of the souls and, at the same time, their typical plurality in the process of a substantial motion. This philosophical issue has a formative association with the psychological discussion posed under the title of the ‘human’s psychological nature’, wherein the scholars have offered various, an even contrasting, views. Some have regarded human’s quiddity as neutral, some have regarded it as having evil leanings, and some others have attributed good leaning to it. By resolving the issue of the typical unity or plurality of the souls in Islamic philosophy, a proper answer would be given to the question posed in psychology.

KEY WORDS: typical plurality of the souls, Islamic philosophy, psychology, Mulla Sadra, human’s quiddity.

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