The Ontological Position of Divine Essence from the Viewpoint of Transcendental Theosophy, Mysticism and Some Sufis, and its Review and Investigation

Ruhullah Suri / Assistant Professor in Department of Philosophy, Kharazmi University   

Received: 2020/11/09 - Accepted: 2021/07/03                                                      souri@khu.ac.ir

ABSTRACT

Explaining the realm of divine essence is among the most complicated and most controversial issues in theology, philosophy and mysticism. The present study uses a descriptive-analytical method to answer the following question: “In which ontological position do the transcendental theosophy, mysticism and Sufism regard the divine essence as established?” It then investigates those views to judge them. The transcendental theosophy, as far as it is committed to the gradation of existence, regards the divine essence as the most exalted order of the system of gradation, which is called “negatively-conditioned existence” due to negation of limits of the lower orders. The “negatively-conditioned existence”, due to being limited to negation, is a certain determination of existence whose accidents on existence require the aforementioned “negation.” Therefore, it cannot be considered as the needless essence of God. Mulla Sadra, like mystics, passes over the gradation and regards the realm of the essence as an unlimited existence beyond gradation and enfolding it. However, he follows the Caesarian statements and does not use the same expressions for that realm. The Sufis, with a wrong perception of the mystics’ statements, have regarded the divine essence as “the divisional negatively-conditioned existence” and spreading in everything. Thus, they have maintained that the divine essence has no actualized realization and is actualized by variation in things. Therefore, it requires things to be externally actualized. Mulla Sadra and Hakim Sabzewari have harshly criticized this view. The difference of the views of mystics, philosophers and some Sufis about the divine essence has some consequences, and investigating them gives a more precise image of the aforementioned views.

KEY WORDS: the realm of the divine essence, negatively-conditioned existence, the dividing negatively-conditioned existence, divisional negatively-conditioned existence, transcendental theosophy, mysticism, Sufism.

سال انتشار: 
1400
شماره مجله: 
72
شماره صفحه: 
7