The Criterion of Dividing Propositions into Basic and Non-Basic in Muslim Thinkers’ View

Muhammad Hussein-zada Yazdi / Professor in Department of Philosophy IKI

@ Akbar Peyrowi Sangari / PhD of Transcendental Theosophy IKI

Received: 2020/02/19 - Accepted: 2020/08/13


Dividing propositions into basic and non-basic has a fundamental role in explaining the epistemological discussions and judging various views in epistemology, and especially in foundationalism. The main question of the present article is as follows: “What is the criterion of dividing proposition into basic and non-basic in Muslim thinkers’ view?” Besides, are the basic propositions epistemologically certain? Does the originality of the basic propositions have a relative criterion? In this article, we answer the abovementioned questions through a descriptive-analytical method. In Muslim thinkers’ view, the criterion for dividing the propositions into basic and non-basic is the need to reasoning and no need to it. Accordingly, as far as reasoning as a method of thinking is concerned, propositions are divided into basic and non-basic. The former are not necessarily certain and include presumptions as well, and even include imaginary propositions which do not need affirmation. Some origins, such as primary premises and intuitive cognitions, are, regardless of the goal of reasoning and where they are applied, all the time and absolutely needless of reasoning. However, some of them are only such in their own figure. Thus, one can say that the basic nature of some propositions of origin is, in a sense, relative; but the other group is absolute. Therefore, it seems that the scope of propositions known as basic is narrower, and that just a group of them does really and absolutely enjoy criterion and are needless of reasoning. Besides, if the criterion for dividing propositions is their being in need of affirmation, the art of poetry gets out of the sphere of affirmation and must not be considered one of the origins of affirmation.

KEY WORDS: acquired proposition, basic proposition, clarifying proposition, origins, axiomatic, necessarily acceptable, five figures.




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