The Secularist Presuppositions and Foundations of the Modern Natural Sciences

@ Ahad Ganj-Ali Khani / PhD in Philosophy of Physics Baqer al-Uloom University

Yar-Ali Kur Firooz-Jaee / Associate Professor in Department of Philosophy Baqer al-Uloom University

Received: 2019/08/18 - Accepted: 2020/02/06                                    


Secularism is a kind of exclusivism in the sphere of knowing the existence. It brought a new definition for the subject matter, the method and the goal of any scientific sphere wherein it entered. It defines the foundations and presuppositions of sciences according to its own worldview. This article seeks to prove that if the definition of the man and his values has approached the definition and the nature of the material and mechanical world in the recent centuries, it is just because of the effect of natural sciences on humanities and redefinition of the basic parameters of those sciences (such as viewing the man, the universe and God) following the definition of those parameters in natural sciences. Accordingly, we will discuss reductionism, mechanical view, quantitative view, observability, naturalism, atomism, rejecting the ultimate causes and non-totalist view of the universe as the secularist bases of science. And finally, we will criticize the one-dimensional attitude governing those sciences. The discussion method is analytical and the result of the study emphasizes the necessity of revising many of the foundations of the modern natural sciences.

KEY WORDS: secularism, modern natural sciences, reductionism, mechanical attitude, quantitative view.

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